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The Criminal Code Of The Russian Federation

Adopted by the State Duma on May 24, 1996
Adopted by the Federation Council on June 5, 1996
Federal Law No. 64-FZ of June 13, 1996 on the Enforcement of the Criminal
Code of the Russian Federation

Part I
Section I
Chapter 1
The Tasks and Principles of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation
Chapter 2
The Operation of a Criminal Law in Time and Space

Chapter 2. The Operation of a Criminal Law in Time and Space

Article 9. The Operation of Criminal Law in Time


1. The criminality and punishability of a deed shall be determined by the criminal law that was operative during the commission of this deed.
2. The time a socially dangerous action (inaction) is committed shall be deemed to be the time of committing a crime, regardless of the time of the onset of consequences.

Article 10. The Retroactive Force of a Criminal Law


1. A criminal law which removes the criminality of a deed, mitigates punishment, or in any other way improves the position of a person who has committed a crime shall have retroactive force, that is, extend to the persons who have committed the respective deeds before the entry of such law into force, including to persons who are serving or have served the sentence. A criminal law that establishes the criminality of a deed and increases punishment or in any other way worsens the position of a person shall have no retroactive force.
2. If a new criminal law mitigates the punishment for a deed, which punishment is being served by a person,their this punishment shall be subject to reduction within the limits provided for by the new criminal law.

Article 11. The Operation of Criminal Law in Respect of Persons Who Have Committed Crimes in the Territory of the Russian Federation


1. Any person who has committed a crime in the territory of the Russian Federation shall be brought to criminal responsibility under this Code.
2. Crimes committed within the limits of the territorial waters or the air space of the Russian Federation shall be deemed to have been performed in the territory of the Russian Federation. The validity of this Code shall also be extended to offences committed on the continental shelf and in the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation.
3. A person who has committed a crime on board a ship registered in a port of the Russian Federation and to or on one on the open sea or in the air space outside the confines of the Russian Federation shall be brought to criminal responsibility under this Code, unless otherwise stipulated by an international agreement of the Russian Federation. Under this Code, criminal responsibility shall also be borne by a person who has committed an offence on board a warship or in a military aircraft of the Russian Federation, regardless of the place of their location.
4. Question of the criminal responsibility of diplomatic representatives of foreign States and other individuals who enjoy immunity shall be settled in conformity with the standards of international law, if these persons have committed crimes in the territory of the Russian Federation.

Article 12. The Operation of Criminal Law in Respect of Persons Who Have Committed Offences Outside the Boundaries of the Russian Federation


1. Citizens of the Russian Federation and stateless persons who permanently reside in the Russian Federation and who have committed crimes outside the boundaries of the Russian Federation shall be brought to criminal responsibility under this Code, if their deeds have been recognized as crimes in the State on whose territory they were committed, and unless these persons have been convicted in the foreign State. In case of conviction of said persons, the punishments may not exceed the upper limit of the sanction provided for by the laws of the foreign State on whose territory the crimes have been committed.
2. Servicemen of the military units of the Russian Federation located beyond the confines of the Russian Federation shall bear criminal responsibility for their crimes committed in the territories of foreign states under this Code, unless otherwise stipulated by international agreements of the Russian Federation.
3. Foreign nationals and stateless persons who do not reside permanently in the Russian Federation and who have committed their crimes outside the boundaries of the Russian Federation shall be brought to criminal responsibility under this Code in cases, if the crimes run counter to the interests of the Russian Federation, and in cases provided for by international agreement of the Russian Federation, and unless they have been convicted in a foreign state and are brought to criminal responsibility in the territory of the Russian Federation.

Article 13. The Extradition of Persons Who Have Committed Crimes


1. Citizens of the Russian Federation who have committed crimes in foreign states shall not be subject to extradition to these states.
2. Foreign nationals and stateless persons who have committed offences outside the boundaries of the Russian Federation and who are to be found in the territory of the Russian Federation may be extradited to a foreign state for bringing to be brought to criminal responsibility or to serve their sentences in conformity with international agreement of the Russian Federation.

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The Customs Code of the Russian Federation
The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation
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The Civil Code of the Russian Federation
The Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation
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